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北岛在剑桥徐志摩诗歌艺术节诗歌论坛发表讲演:古老的敌意和粉丝现象

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发表于 2016-8-12 18:51:51 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
北岛在剑桥徐志摩诗歌艺术节诗歌论坛发表讲演
古老的敌意和粉丝现象



mmexport1470999233665.jpg



亲爱的朋友们、同行们:
Dear friends,
Ladies and gentlemen[ “朋友们同行们”中两者有重叠,所以改用说法。],

大约一个世纪前,奥地利诗人里尔克(Rainer Maria Rilke)在《安魂曲》中写下这样的诗句:“因为生活和伟大的作品之间/总存在某种古老的敌意”。
About a century ago, Rainer Maria Rilke, a Bohemian-Austrian poet[ 从现今疆域划分来看,Rainer Maria Rilke属于车臣共和国,在100年前他的故乡是奥匈帝国,为免争议,采取大众可以接受的译法。

Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainer_Maria_Rilke ], put it in his Requiem: “For somewhere reigns an old hostility/ between living one’s life and doing one’s work.”

里尔克的这两句诗,对我来说有如持久的钟声,绵延不绝,意味深长,尤其在当今乱世,或许可引发更深一层的思考——对于以写作为毕生事业的人来说,我们今天应该如何生活、如何写作、如何理解并处理生活与写作的关系。

The quotations from Rilke, like unceasing clangour of bells, resonate with me. Especially, for us, who have devoted our whole life to writing in this turbulent era, we should think about how to lead our lives, how to write and how to deal with the relationship between writing and one’s own life.

所谓“古老的敌意”,从字面上来看,“古老的”指的是原初的,带有某种宿命色彩,可追溯到文字与书写的源头;“敌意”则是一种诗意的说法,指的是某种内在的紧张与悖论。

Literally, in the phrase “old hostility”, “old” means “originating from an earlier time” and implies predestination. The origin of literature can be traced back to the proto-writing[ Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_writing ]. “Hostility” is a usage of personification, referring to an internal tension and paradoxical nature of literature.
                                                                                                                                
我想从这两句诗出发,从三个层面谈谈“古老的敌意”。

Based on the quotations from Rilke, I would like to talk about the “old hostility” in the following aspects.

就社会层面而言,“古老的敌意”是指作家和他所处的时代的紧张关系。无论生活在什么样的社会制度中,作家都应远离主流,对所有的权力及其话语持怀疑和批判立场。在今天,作家不仅是写作的手艺人,同时也是公共事物[ 根据上下文,译者认为此处应为“公共事务”。]的见证人或参与者,这种双重身份的认同构成写作的动力之一。换句话说,如果没有这种社会性的“古老的敌意”,几乎不可能写出好作品。当今世界,金钱与权力共谋的全球化取代了东西方冷战的格局,变得更加扑朔迷离更加瞬息多变因而也更加危险。除了对正统意识形态的抵抗外,在一个庸俗化和娱乐化主导的商业时代,我们也必须对所谓“大众”的主流话语保持高度的警惕——在“民主化”的旗帜下,文学艺术往往会沦为牟取暴利的工具。作家必须持有复杂的立场和视角,在写作内外做出回应。


In the social level, the “old hostility” refers to the tension between writers and the times they live in. Regardless of social systems, writers should isolate themselves from the mainstream and adopt critical and questioning attitudes towards power and power discourse. Writers must struggle against mainstream ideologies[ 此处是将“除了对正统意识形态的抵抗外,”这半句提前。节奏更紧密。译者选择“mainstream”是因为orthodoxy ideology可能引起西方人误读,而且结合上下文   mainstream说得通。]. Today, writers recognize their identities of both craftsmen in writing, and witnesses or participants of public affairs. Thus, they are motivated to create better works. That is to say, without the social “old hostility”, it is almost impossible for writers to create excellent works. Today, as the Cold War conflicts gave place to globalization, which is driven by capital and political power, the world undergoes daily changes, and becomes more complicated and dangerous. Besides, in commercial, entertainment and popular cultures, writers should also be vigilant against mainstream public discourse, because under the banner of democratization, art and literature are always used for reaping profits. Under these circumstances, writers must adopt multiple viewpoints and cultural horizons, and also make response.

而这“古老的敌意”不能仅仅停留在政治层面。从人类历史的角度看,政治不过是短暂而表面的现象,如过眼烟云。作家要有长远而宽广的视野,包括对世界、历史、经济、社会、文化等诸多方面的深入观察与体验[ 观察和体验二者有交叉。]。

Then, the “old hostility” is beyond the political level. In the human’s history, politics is transient and superficial. Writers need to have far-sighted vision and be ready to locate themselves to take on a remarkable mix of historic, economic, social, and cultural phenomena.

如果继续推进,必然会触及到语言层面,那么“古老的敌意”指的是作家和母语之间的紧张关系。任何语言总是处在起承兴衰的变化中,作家要通过自己的写作给母语带来新的活力,尤其是在母语处在危机中的关键时刻。

Thirdly, in linguistics, the “old hostility” describes the tension between writers and their mother tongues. All the languages change all the time, so writers should instill vitality to their mother tongues through writing, especially during the crucial moments when their mother tongues are endangered.

托马斯·特朗斯特罗姆说:“语言是与刽子手步调一致的。因而我们必须找到新的语言。”打破专制囚笼的语言,推动了现代汉语的转型与发展。

According to Tomas Tranströmer, “The language marches in step with the executioners. Therefore we must get a new language.” In the past, the Chinese writers helped eliminate autocratic language restrictions and propelled the development of modern Chinese.

如今我们面临的是完全不同的困境,现代汉语陷入新的危机——我们生活在一个充斥着语言垃圾的时代。一方面,是无所不在的行话,包括学者的行话、商人的行话、政客的行话,等等;另一方面,是沉渣泛起的语言泡沫,包括娱乐语言、网络语言和新媒体语言。这两种语言看似相反,却存在着某种同谋关系。在所谓全球化的网络时代,这种新的“与刽子手步调一致的”语言,表现形式相反,但同样让人因绝望而感到无力。每个作家应正视这一现实,通过写作恢复汉语的新鲜、丰富与敏锐,重新为世界命名。

However, the plight[ “困境”译为plight。Plight和Predicament区别如下:
“Plight” means that someone is in a desperate situation, and may suffer loss, come to harm, or even die if they do not get help. The original meaning of "plight" was to be in danger.
“Predicament” is a situation that is not necessarily threatening, just hard to deal with, or hard to decide on.
这里强调现代汉语处于危机,应该远远不止难于抉择的程度,所以我觉得应该选用plight。
Source:https://answers.yahoo.com/questi ... 101013031748AAiKzFd] we face today is completely different. Modern Chinese has been threatened by a new crisis, that is, we live in an era full of language wastes[ 这里的“垃圾”译为waste。

几个表示“垃圾”的词比较如下:

waste → 普通用词,概念广泛,指任何被丢弃的东西。
garbage → 主要指有机废料,包括厨房的剩菜剩饭或不能再用的食物。也可作引申用。
rubbish → 普通用词,指任何成堆的、破损的、用过的或无用的东西,尤指弃掉的垃圾堆。也可作引申用。
litter → 是四下乱丢物品的总称,尤指散落于地,有碍观瞻的废物。
debris → 着重指分解、分裂或破坏后剩下的碎片,也指零散的普通废品。
junk → 指回收的旧汽车或大型机器,也指毫无实用价值,或破烂物体,但不指垃圾。
garbage: (1) especially AmE waste material, such as paper, empty containers, and food thrown away; = rubbish BrE [...]
litter: (1) WASTE [U] waste paper, cans etc that people have thrown away and left on the ground in a public place; = rubbish, trash, garbage: People who drop litter can be fined in some cities. | a town with a litter problem. [...]
rubbish: [U] especially BrE (1) food, paper etc that is no longer needed and has been thrown away; = garbage AmE, trash AmE [...]
trash: (1) AmE, things that you throw away, such as empty bottles, used papers, food that has gone bad etc; = rubbish BrE [...]
waste: (4) UNWANTED MATERIALS [U] unwanted materials or substances that are left after you have used something: The emphasis is on recycling houshold waste. | industrial/chemical etc waste proposals to end the dumping of industrial waste into rivers and seas | waste pipes | the disposal of hazardous waste -> nuclear waste, toxic waste -> see picture at ENVIRONMENT [...]
其他几个词指代很明确,只有waste是泛指,可以指代语言。
Source:《英语同义词辨析词典》;
http://english.stackexchange.com ... itter-rubbish-waste]. One type[ 这里的“一方面”和“另一方面”指代的是语言垃圾的种类,因为后面提到“这两种语言看似相反,却存在着某种同谋关系”,所以不是指代两个相对立的事物,而是作者对语言垃圾的分类。
根据《英语同义词辨析词典》:
kind,sort,type,class,classification,category,species,variety  
这些名词均有“种,类,类型”之意。
kind → 指性质相同,而且特征很相似,足以归为一类的人或东西。
sort → 普通用词,文体较kind随便,指对人或对事物进行的大概分类,有时含贬义。
type → 指客观界限比较清楚,有相同本质特点的同类事物,或指大致相似的同类事物。
class → 正式用词,指门类、种类或优劣等级;用于指动植物的分类时,表示“纲”。
classification → 指根据已经确定的类型对某一实物作鉴别和归类。
category → 书面用词,特指有确切定义的群体。
species → 书面用词,单复数同形。指生物分类上的种。
variety → 强调有各自的特点,形式不同,品质不同的种类。

所以选择type更合适。] is ubiquitous jargon, including jargon of scholars, businessmen and politicians[ 这里如果用scholars’ jargon, businessmen’s jargon and politicians’ jargon的话,jargon就要重复三遍,更加烦琐,因为后面都是同一个单词,所以用jargon of scholars, businessmen and politicians。], etc.; the other type is language bubbles which are full of dregs, including bubbles from language of entertainment, network and new media. These two language types seem to be totally different, but they are closely connected to each other. In the so-called “era of worldwide Internet connections”, despite of their different forms, the new “executioner-concerted” languages lead people to be both hopeless and disappointed. Every writer should face up to this reality and then help restore freshness, richness and acuteness of Chinese through writing. Only in this way can writers change the world.

最后是作家与自身的紧张关系,即作家对自己的“敌意”。换个通俗的说法,作家不仅要跟世界过不去,跟母语过不去,还得跟自己过不去。在我看来,一个严肃的作家,必须对自己的写作保持高度的警惕。

Finally, the “old hostility” refers to the writer’s “hostility” towards himself. Plainly speaking, writers should be hard on[ 下文提到需要不断质疑,这里的“过不去”应该指的是作家要严格要求自己,不断自省的意思,且因为strict表示“指在行为规则上要求严格”,并不能体现出“过不去”的这种程度,所以我用be hard on表示严格要求。] the world, their mother tongues and even their own. In my opinion, a serious writer must remain highly alert to even their own writing.

我在最近一本书的序言中写道:“写作是一门手艺。与其他手艺不同的是,这是心灵的手艺,要正心诚意,这是孤独的手艺,必一意孤行,否则随时都可能荒废。在这个意义上,每个以写作为毕生事业的手艺人,都要经受这一法则的考验,唯有诚惶诚恐,如履薄冰。”

As I wrote in the preface of a recent book, “Writing is a craft. Different from other crafts, writing is a craft of soul and sincerity as well as a craft of solitude[ 这里的“孤独”是一种要积极对待孤独,耐得住寂寞的意思,所以应该选择solitude。

Loneliness
1. Loneliness is a painful, negative state.
2. It is where we feel alone, and cut off and estranged from other people. Thus, we may feel as if we are excluded, unwanted, unimportant or unnoticed.  
3. We can be surrounded by people we know and love and still experience feelings of intense loneliness.
4. Loneliness feels like punishment or rejection. It is rooted in a sense of deficiency or inadequacy.
5. It is something that depletes us, and is imposed on us.
6. Loneliness can lead to self rejection, and even to self loathing and despair.
Solitude
1. Solitude is a positive state.
2. It is where we are perfectly happy to be by ourselves, and relish and enjoy our own company.
3. Solitude can help us get in touch with, or engage with, our true self.  It allows us to reflect on ourselves, others, our life, and our future.  
4. Often, solitude is a springboard to greater self-awareness, greater creativity, fresh insights, and new growth.
5. Solitude is something we choose. It is something that restores and builds us up.  
6. Solitude grounds us in who we are – and that enables us to reach out and give to others
而且北岛本身也很推崇“solitude”这种态度,
He chose the pen name because he came from the north and because of his preference for solitude.
Source:https://www.quora.com/What-is-th ... tude-and-loneliness
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bei_Dao#Poetry_collections] and resolute will[ “一意孤行”本意是“指不接受别人的劝告,顽固地按照自己的主观想法去做”,这里不是贬义,意思是要意志坚定,所以用will。]. Without solitude and resolute will, a writer may give up writing at any time. Any craftsman who takes writing as a lifelong pursuit will face such serious tests. Only craftsmen with reverence and awe, and being extremely cautious can succeed.”

海明威在《老人与海》中写道:“人生来就不是为了被打败的,人能够被毁灭,但是不能够被打败”。目睹某些同时代艺术家和作家的转变,让我深感惋惜,并借此不断提醒自己:与其说他们中很多人是被金钱被权力打败的,不如说是被自己打败的。换句话说,就是不再跟自己过不去,不再跟自己较劲儿了——其实这是最后一道防线,如果连这道防线都没有,就算是向这个世界彻底投降了,同流合污,无可救药。

In The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway wrote: “A man is not made for defeat...a man can be destroyed but not defeated.” I am deeply sorry to see changes of some contemporary artists and writers, and take it to remind myself that many of them are defeated by their own rather than money or power. In other words, they are no longer hard on themselves-- in fact, this is the last line of defense. They surrender to the world completely if they lose this line of defense, wallowing in mire and being hopeless.

我们生活在一个危机四伏的时代,一个需要不断追问和质疑的时代。在这样的大背景中,“古老的敌意”为以写作为毕生事业的人提供了特殊的现实感和精神向度。

We live in a crisis-ridden era. In this era, we should dare to question the authority. The "old hostility" provides a special sense of reality and spiritual dimension to people who are determined to devote their whole life to writing.

我想顺便提一下所谓的“粉丝现象”。这本来是娱乐圈的事,现在扩展到文学界和整个文化界。我认为,这与我们文化中的“低幼化”(infantilization)倾向有关。“低幼化”是从精神分析学借用的概念,主要指人们自动降低智力水平的趋向。正如印度学者阿希斯·南迪(Ashis Nandy)所指出的:“那么上千万人所经历的痛苦就将只能存活在人类的意识边缘,就像往常那样,成为代代相传然而渐渐退色的回忆”。

By the way, I would like to mention the so-called “fan phenomenon[ “粉丝现象”译为fan phenomena。
参考Fan Phenomena series
This new series is prompted by a growing appetite for books that tap into the fascination we have with what constitutes an iconic or cultish phenomenon and how a particular person, TV show or film character/film infiltrates their way into the public consciousness. We will look at particular examples of “fan culture” and approach the subject in an accessible manner aimed at both fans and those interested in the cultural and social aspects of these fascinating – and often unusual – “universes”.
CFP: Supernatural – Fan Phenomena
Now accepting abstracts for consideration for the new Supernatural (Fan Phenomena) title from Intellect Press. This will be part of the series of Fan Phenomena books, which aim to explore and decode the fascination we have with what constitutes an iconic or cultish phenomenon and how a particular person, TV show or film character/film infiltrates its way into the public consciousness.
Source:http://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/books/view-Series,id=32/;
https://fanstudies.org/tag/fan-phenomena/]”. In the past, “fan phenomenon” only occurred in the entertainment circle. Now, it moves beyond and prevails in the literary world and even in the entire intellectual circle. I think such phenomenon is closely related to infantilization in our culture. “Infantilization” is a concept borrowed from analytic psychology[ “精神分析学”译为analytic psychology。
Analytical psychology (sometimes analytic psychology), also called Jungian psychology, is a school of psychotherapy which originated in the ideas of Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist. It emphasizes the importance of the individual psyche and the personal quest for wholeness.
Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_psychology], mainly referring to the tendency that people voluntarily[ 这里的“自动”应该是“自主的”意思,指代人们有意识地,自愿降低自己的智力水平。] downgrade intelligence level. As Indian scholar Ashis Nandy noted: “The experience of suffering of millions will have to survive at the margins of human awareness the way it usually does – either as fading memories handed down from generation to generation.”[ 这一句引用原文:The experience of suffering of millions will have to survive at the margins of human awareness the way it usually does – either as fading memories handed down from generation to generation; or as fragments of an unwritten epic that cast their shadow only on the unofficial, vernacular modes of political and cultural self-expression.
Source:https://newint.org/features/2007/10/01/roots/]

在这个意义上,某些作家和学者不再引导读者,而是不断降低写作标准,以迎合更多的读者。这是一种恶性循环,导致我们文化(包括娱乐文化在内)不断粗鄙化、泡沫化。

Based on Ashis Nandy’s theory, some writers and scholars no longer guide readers. Instead, these writers and scholars constantly lower their writing standards to cater to readers’ tastes. This vicious spiral leads our cultures, including entertainment culture, to become increasingly vulgar and create more bubble phenomena.

让我们再回到本文的开头,回到里尔克的《安魂曲》的诗句中:“因为生活与伟大的作品之间/总存在古老的敌意”。其实可怕的不是苦难与失败,而是我们对自己的处境浑然不知。如果在大国兴起的广告牌后面,是一个民族的精神赤贫,我们有什么可值得骄傲的呢?

As I have just said at the beginning of my speech, Rainer Maria Rilke put it in his Requiem: “For somewhere reigns an old hostility/ between living one's life and doing one's work”. The only thing we have to fear is being unaware of our own situation (rather than hardship and failure). If a nation rises to be a great power but still confronts the spiritual impoverishment, then what can we be proud of?
 楼主| 发表于 2016-8-12 18:52:55 | 显示全部楼层
译者注

“朋友们同行们”中两者有重叠,所以改用说法。
从现今疆域划分来看,Rainer Maria Rilke属于车臣共和国,在100年前他的故乡是奥匈帝国,为免争议,采取大众可以接受的译法。
Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainer_Maria_Rilke
Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_writing
根据上下文,译者认为此处应为“公共事务”。
此处是将“除了对正统意识形态的抵抗外,”这半句提前。节奏更紧密。译者选择“mainstream”是因为orthodoxy ideology可能引起西方人误读,而且结合上下文   mainstream说得通。
观察和体验二者有交叉。
“困境”译为plight。Plight和Predicament区别如下:
“Plight” means that someone is in a desperate situation, and may suffer loss, come to harm, or even die if they do not get help. The original meaning of "plight" was to be in danger.
“Predicament” is a situation that is not necessarily threatening, just hard to deal with, or hard to decide on.
这里强调现代汉语处于危机,应该远远不止难于抉择的程度,所以我觉得应该选用plight。
Source:https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20101013031748AAiKzFd
这里的“垃圾”译为waste。
几个表示“垃圾”的词比较如下:
waste → 普通用词,概念广泛,指任何被丢弃的东西。
garbage → 主要指有机废料,包括厨房的剩菜剩饭或不能再用的食物。也可作引申用。
rubbish → 普通用词,指任何成堆的、破损的、用过的或无用的东西,尤指弃掉的垃圾堆。也可作引申用。
litter → 是四下乱丢物品的总称,尤指散落于地,有碍观瞻的废物。
debris → 着重指分解、分裂或破坏后剩下的碎片,也指零散的普通废品。
junk → 指回收的旧汽车或大型机器,也指毫无实用价值,或破烂物体,但不指垃圾。
garbage: (1) especially AmE waste material, such as paper, empty containers, and food thrown away; = rubbish BrE [...]
litter: (1) WASTE [U] waste paper, cans etc that people have thrown away and left on the ground in a public place; = rubbish, trash, garbage: People who drop litter can be fined in some cities. | a town with a litter problem. [...]
rubbish: [U] especially BrE (1) food, paper etc that is no longer needed and has been thrown away; = garbage AmE, trash AmE [...]
trash: (1) AmE, things that you throw away, such as empty bottles, used papers, food that has gone bad etc; = rubbish BrE [...]
waste: (4) UNWANTED MATERIALS [U] unwanted materials or substances that are left after you have used something: The emphasis is on recycling houshold waste. | industrial/chemical etc waste proposals to end the dumping of industrial waste into rivers and seas | waste pipes | the disposal of hazardous waste -> nuclear waste, toxic waste -> see picture at ENVIRONMENT [...]
其他几个词指代很明确,只有waste是泛指,可以指代语言。
Source:《英语同义词辨析词典》;
http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/272361/what-is-the-difference-between-trash-garbage-litter-rubbish-waste
这里的“一方面”和“另一方面”指代的是语言垃圾的种类,因为后面提到“这两种语言看似相反,却存在着某种同谋关系”,所以不是指代两个相对立的事物,而是作者对语言垃圾的分类。
根据《英语同义词辨析词典》:
kind,sort,type,class,classification,category,species,variety  
这些名词均有“种,类,类型”之意。
kind → 指性质相同,而且特征很相似,足以归为一类的人或东西。
sort → 普通用词,文体较kind随便,指对人或对事物进行的大概分类,有时含贬义。
type → 指客观界限比较清楚,有相同本质特点的同类事物,或指大致相似的同类事物。
class → 正式用词,指门类、种类或优劣等级;用于指动植物的分类时,表示“纲”。
classification → 指根据已经确定的类型对某一实物作鉴别和归类。
category → 书面用词,特指有确切定义的群体。
species → 书面用词,单复数同形。指生物分类上的种。
variety → 强调有各自的特点,形式不同,品质不同的种类。
所以选择type更合适。
这里如果用scholars’ jargon, businessmen’s jargon and politicians’ jargon的话,jargon就要重复三遍,更加烦琐,因为后面都是同一个单词,所以用jargon of scholars, businessmen and politicians。
下文提到需要不断质疑,这里的“过不去”应该指的是作家要严格要求自己,不断自省的意思,且因为strict表示“指在行为规则上要求严格”,并不能体现出“过不去”的这种程度,所以我用be hard on表示严格要求。
这里的“孤独”是一种要积极对待孤独,耐得住寂寞的意思,所以应该选择solitude。
Loneliness
1. Loneliness is a painful, negative state.
2. It is where we feel alone, and cut off and estranged from other people. Thus, we may feel as if we are excluded, unwanted, unimportant or unnoticed.  
3. We can be surrounded by people we know and love and still experience feelings of intense loneliness.
4. Loneliness feels like punishment or rejection. It is rooted in a sense of deficiency or inadequacy.
5. It is something that depletes us, and is imposed on us.
6. Loneliness can lead to self rejection, and even to self loathing and despair.
Solitude
1. Solitude is a positive state.
2. It is where we are perfectly happy to be by ourselves, and relish and enjoy our own company.
3. Solitude can help us get in touch with, or engage with, our true self.  It allows us to reflect on ourselves, others, our life, and our future.  
4. Often, solitude is a springboard to greater self-awareness, greater creativity, fresh insights, and new growth.
5. Solitude is something we choose. It is something that restores and builds us up.  
6. Solitude grounds us in who we are – and that enables us to reach out and give to others
而且北岛本身也很推崇“solitude”这种态度,
He chose the pen name because he came from the north and because of his preference for solitude.
Source:https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-solitude-and-loneliness
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bei_Dao#Poetry_collections
“一意孤行”本意是“指不接受别人的劝告,顽固地按照自己的主观想法去做”,这里不是贬义,意思是要意志坚定,所以用will。
“粉丝现象”译为fan phenomena。
参考Fan Phenomena series
This new series is prompted by a growing appetite for books that tap into the fascination we have with what constitutes an iconic or cultish phenomenon and how a particular person, TV show or film character/film infiltrates their way into the public consciousness. We will look at particular examples of “fan culture” and approach the subject in an accessible manner aimed at both fans and those interested in the cultural and social aspects of these fascinating – and often unusual – “universes”.
CFP: Supernatural – Fan Phenomena
Now accepting abstracts for consideration for the new Supernatural (Fan Phenomena) title from Intellect Press. This will be part of the series of Fan Phenomena books, which aim to explore and decode the fascination we have with what constitutes an iconic or cultish phenomenon and how a particular person, TV show or film character/film infiltrates its way into the public consciousness.
Source:http://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/books/view-Series,id=32/;
https://fanstudies.org/tag/fan-phenomena/
“精神分析学”译为analytic psychology。
Analytical psychology (sometimes analytic psychology), also called Jungian psychology, is a school of psychotherapy which originated in the ideas of Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist. It emphasizes the importance of the individual psyche and the personal quest for wholeness.
Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytical_psychology
这里的“自动”应该是“自主的”意思,指代人们有意识地,自愿降低自己的智力水平。
这一句引用原文:The experience of suffering of millions will have to survive at the margins of human awareness the way it usually does – either as fading memories handed down from generation to generation; or as fragments of an unwritten epic that cast their shadow only on the unofficial, vernacular modes of political and cultural self-expression.
Source:https://newint.org/features/2007/10/01/roots/
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