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【英国专家敦煌行】邱锦仙演讲内容

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发表于 2018-5-29 11:51:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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用中国传统方法在大英博物馆修复装裱历代古书画三十年

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各位先生和女士们,您们好!我叫邱锦仙,原在上海博物馆工作,从一九七二年十月份开始专职从事修复装裱中国历代书画工作,在工作期间,深受国内有名的苏帮和扬帮修复名师徐茂康和华启明师傅等精心培养和耐心指教,我和同事们一起努力学习,刻苦钻研,几年后都能掌握、处理历代书画传统修复装裱工作,如纸本和绢本的手卷、册页、立轴、横坡、镜片等不同款式的方法。我在上海博物馆从事裱画工作十五年,在一九八七年十月,有机会到达伦敦后,被伦敦大学亚非学院任教中国古书画艺术和佛教艺术的韦陀教授获悉推荐,被大英博物馆亚洲部主任罗森教授邀请,受聘于修复部工作,在一九九二年获得了长期工作的职位,至今已在此工作了三十年。在工作期间,带教过许多来之世界各国的实习生,及四位正规的为大英博物馆工作的学生,前两位已离开,去其它博物馆工作了,现在带教的是Valentina Marabini和Carol Weiss。在工作中我一直是用中国的传统方法,以上海博物馆的要求和标准,修复和装裱中国历代古书画,常得到领导和同仁们的好评。三十年来,我在大英博物馆修复和装裱了不少技术难度较高的绘画作品。

中国是一个有着五千多年悠久历史的文化古国,历代流传下来有极其丰富的文化遗产,在世界各地都收藏着中国宝贵的文物,大英博物馆就是其中的一个地方,这里珍藏着许多各种各样的中国文物,特别是极其重要的莫高窟纸本和绢本绘画,和传顾恺之的“女史箴图”等,这些绘画都是文化精品,在国际上有着极大的影响,它在世界上是学术者们极其重要的珍贵研究资料。

大英博物馆的领导和同事们很尊重和信任我,凡需要我修复、装裱的书画,操作的方案,装裱的款式和镶料的颜色及尺寸大小,基本上都由我决定。亚洲部和修复部领导们很支持我对古书画的修复和研究,我取得的成绩和领导们的关心和支持是分不开的。

装裱修复艺术在中国具有悠久的历史和鲜明的民族特色,装璜和修复形式,历经沿革,名目繁多。中国的古代书画,大多数是画在绢本和纸本上,但无论是哪一种,我们装裱用的镶料都是耿绢和绫子,以画心的底色来相配镶料颜色,用单色素雅文静的颜色衬托出画心,托纸和复背纸用的都是棉料单宣纸,用的材料比较薄,用的浆糊很稀,画裱好后,卷起来比较柔软。中国书画装裱,长期以来积累了丰富的经验,不断地改进。

今天我介绍一下,修复过的几幅绘画。在1984年,韦陀教授在大英博物馆亚洲部工作,负责管理研究中国古书画,那时候他把敦煌绘画全部送到东方书画修复室来。这些画都卷团在一起,画面七零八落,乱成一团,当时有一位英国裱画师Alf Crowley和韦陀教授经常合作,把卷团在一起的敦煌画都慢慢放开,用清水摆平,然后把相同类似的绢片放在一起,夹在纸板里面。需要修复托裱的画碎片有四百余片。在2002年美国梅隆基金会资助,大英博物馆把敦煌绘画全部修复完毕,然后进行资料数位化,供世界各国人民和学者欣赏及研究。

大英博物馆的领导们决定把修复工作交给我负责,由于工作量大,于是修复部和亚洲部领导,让我邀请上海博物馆的同事,裱画师诸品芳老师来与我一起合作工作。事先我染了几十张不同颜色的日本皮纸,以后可托裱在不同颜色的绘画上。准备工作都已准备好了,我们就开始把每块碎片根据画意形状和绢的质地等,经过反复细致地研究,然后拼成一组,用相配的颜色纸托成二层纸后上浆,再托裱在画背上面,上板贴平,这样就裱成一幅绘画。我们总共裱成了116件,在这其中,修复难度最大的一幅,是有37块碎片拼接而成的一幅敦煌佛教大画。这幅画颜色很浓,五颜六色,原来每片都已托过,需要重新把每片托纸揭掉。由于这画存放时间长久,画面上笼罩着一层灰尘,颜色有点灰暗,所以我们把每块碎片,用清水先轻轻地漂洗一下,然后用毛巾吸干,在台子上放一张日本Rayon纸,把洗干净的画放在上面刷平,然后揭去托纸,在每一块画背面上再吸一张薄的Rayon纸,等画晾干后,把每块碎片准确无误地拼接起来,然后用预先染好的颜色纸,把画托裱起来。由于此画面积太大,所以我们一半一半的做,最后再把两个一半拼接起来,加托,修裱成一幅较完整的大画,裱成后的尺寸是:长213公分,宽200公分。

在2003年时,我又修复了一幅敦煌大画。此画曾在大英博物馆被裱成立轴,用深蓝色的日本锦绫做镶料,画心是绢本,用的是染色布来托画的,由于布的质地很硬,经过几十年的卷放,画绢和托布有许多地方都脱离开了,画面到处都是断裂,甚至有的大面积绢画快要掉下来了。当时亚洲部管理中国绘画的负责人,希望我能重裱此画。这幅画是彩绘菩萨像,有墨、朱砂、**、藤黄、赭石等颜料,于是我用棉花球蘸了一点水后,在各种颜色上试一下,是否掉色。其它颜色没问题,只有**有些地方掉色,于是我就用开水溶化的胶水,用毛笔蘸上后镀在掉色的颜色上面,然后等它干,等二天后把颜色固定。接下来我就看画心的底色,取纸染色,绢本的托纸要染的与画心的颜色要接近,因为颜色淡的纸托绢本画会露底。准备工作都做好后,我就裁去旧裱装,把画放在裱画台上面,用一点点温水用排笔蘸上后,轻轻地洒在画面上,给它清洗,然后用毛巾放在上面,轻轻地吸干。这样的方法洗了三次,把里面的污垢和酸洗干净后,然后把裁好的,比画心大的Rayon纸,喷水刷平在裱画台上,把画心翻过来,刷平在Rayon纸上面,再把湿毛巾盖在画背上,在毛巾上再盖一张薄的塑料纸,接着就开始拣复背纸和托布。我和同事们一起小心翼翼地先把复背纸一块块拣去之后,再把托布慢慢地拣掉。因为敦煌画残缺很厉害,所以不需要补洞,于是我把染色纸托成二层纸后,在画背后上浆,再把颜色纸托上去刷平,用棕扫用力排刷粘住后,把画和Rayon纸一起从台子上拿起来,翻过身,然后把吸在画面上的Rayon纸,轻轻地拿掉,画心就出来了,放在毡上,让它慢慢晾干。等到第二天,再喷水潮湿,把画刷平在台子上,四面补浆,贴上板等它平整。因为此画断裂残缺厉害,我和亚洲部负责人商量后,决定不再裱成立轴,裱成镜片。于是我就托好耿娟,染了与画相配的颜色,等画干后起下来,四边裁齐后,把镶料耿娟也裁好,然后相接起来,我量好裱成的尺寸后,托了一张三层的复背纸,复在画的背后,接着补浆上板,等画干透后起下来裁正,贴平在我预先拼好的西方纸板上,这样便于今后展出。这幅敦煌画裱好后的尺寸是:长188公分,宽153公分。

我们裱好每一张敦煌画后,由专做西方镜片的David Green来量好尺寸后,裁好纸板,然后我把画放正粘贴上去,裱成西方镜片,这样就便于保存和展出。遇到裱大画,裱画组全体同事就帮忙一起工作,我们尽心尽力地努力工作,在2003年,终于把这项重要的修复工作顺利完成。

在2008年,我修复装裱了一幅清代画家徐廷琨(1777年-1853年),人物风景纸本画,它的名字叫“春节风俗图”,这幅人物画的特别生动活泼,但有许许多多的残缺,尤其在石绿和石青的地方,宣纸已经都烂掉了,而且画上到处都是断裂,因为此画是熟纸,经常卷放,断裂,疲破不堪,画心不小,是四尺中堂。在修复之前,按照规律,先检查一下画心上的颜色,有否掉色,于是我用棉花球蘸上一点水,在各种颜色上试一下,结果石绿石青颜色都有点掉色,我用毛笔在易掉的颜色上刷点胶水,等几天颜色干透牢固后,然后看画心的质地和纹路,找到同样质地的纸张后,先用生豆浆水染纸,等干后,再染颜色做托纸,但纸本的托纸一定要淡于画心的底色,准备工作都已做好了,就可以裁去旧裱装,开始做画心了。我先把画放在台子上,画面向上,因为此画颜色有点易掉,虽然上了胶水给它固定住了,为了保险,就用一点点暖和的清水,用排笔蘸上水后,轻轻地洒在画面上,然后用毛巾轻轻地把它吸干,画心很脏,给它洗了三次,画心洗干净后,用干净的纸放在上面,把它卷起来放在旁边,接着把台子擦干净后,再把预先裁好的日本Rayon纸,用水喷湿后,刷平在台子上,Rayon纸一定要大过画心,然后把画打开来,画心翻过来,画面朝下,画背朝上,用棕扫把画刷平在Rayon纸上面,再用湿毛巾盖在画上,接着就小心翼翼地先把复背纸揭掉,然后再慢慢地把托纸一小块一小块掲去,由于此画较大又极破,托纸很难揭,我和Valentina马不停蹄地揭了二天多,才把托纸揭干净。在揭托纸时,就看到了在原来的每个破洞口周围都有一圈白颜色,不知道以前修复此画用的是什么材料?于是我用毛笔蘸上温水,在每个洞口的白颜色上给它清洗,但这颜色已渗透在里面了,洗不掉,只能保持原状,于是我就开始托画了,在画背后用排笔上浆水,把颜色纸托上去,再在破洞处用白色宣纸补洞,补好后,把Rayon纸和画心一起从台子上拿起来,翻过身后,把吸在画心上的Rayon纸,轻轻地拿掉,然后在每个洞上,用干净的毛笔蘸上清水,洗净上面的浆糊,再把画心用棕扫刷平在台子上,在画心外面的出助上,四边刷上浆糊贴上板,等干后起下来,四周裁齐,然后用小刀在每个洞口边上挑刮干净,把裁好的出助颜色纸镶在四边,再加托一层很薄的棉连纸加固画心,等干后,我把自己做的豆浆水全在每个洞口上,如全一次不够,就全第二次,等洞口干后,然后喷水潮匀画心,再扑浆贴在板上,等画心干透后,就可以全颜色了。在残缺的地方,按照颜色和画意,我用各种不同的中国矿物颜料调和配色。由于以前裱画师用白颜色全在洞口的背面上,所以在正面洞口周围的颜色就深过画心的底色,我小心地一笔笔全上去,把颜色全的与洞口的颜色均匀起来,有时要全七、八次,才能把颜色全的与原来的一模一样,全了好几天,画心做好后,就准备设计立轴的尺寸和镶料。因为大英博物馆的陈列橱不是很高,所以希望我不要裱得很高大,这画也不算小,所以我决定做一色裱,裱成之后也已经有7尺多长,2尺4寸宽。我用的是深米色的耿娟做镶料,但颜色一定要淡过画心,用这样的素静颜色就可以把画心衬托出来。由于这幅画到处都是断裂,所在后面埑了数不清的条子,密密麻麻,像面条一样那么多,然后托了二层复背纸,复好画后,贴上板,此画贴在板上有数个月后,起下来砑画,再装上帖和下轴杆,穿绳子,封头和扎带,便完成修复和装裱工作。这幅立轴在2010年大英博物馆办中国绘画展览时曾展出。

在2014-2015年时,上海博物馆的三位裱画师,褚昊、黄瑛和沈骅,被邀请到大英博物馆来和我一起合作工作,修复了两幅明代绢本大中堂,现在我讲的是其中的一幅,关于修复任可吏这幅画的工作过程。此画名字叫“西番贡狮图”,是十五世纪的彩色绢本画,画的是一位“波斯”人,牵了一头大狮子去进贡。画心到处都是断裂和残缺,画绢很酥,疲破不堪,画心很大,长4.9尺,宽3.2尺,原来此画是用绢托画的,经常长年累月的卷放,有几十处地方的画绢都脱离开了,拿给我重裱时,打开立轴,画心上面盖了一层纸,如不盖纸的话,画心上脱离的绢都已掉了,于是我调好浆糊,用毛笔在每块掉落的画绢上给它添浆,把它们回复到托绢上,固定后等干。在修复之前我找到了自己收藏的老补绢里,有明代同样经纬丝的旧补绢。接下来我检查一下画心上的各种颜色是否掉色,检查后,其它颜色没问题,就是在**的地方容易掉,于是我用明胶放在玻璃烧杯里,用水煮开溶化后,用毛笔蘸上后镀在掉色的颜色上,等几天把颜色固定住。接着我准备染托纸,做绢本画,托纸的颜色一定要深,要接近画心的底色,不然会露底,画心会变的没精神。准备工作都做好了,开始处理画心了。我和褚昊先把旧裱装裁掉后,把画心放在裱画台上,画面向上,用排笔蘸上热水轻轻地洒上画心,然后等水冷后用毛巾轻轻地把它吸干,像这样方法洗了四次,把画心洗干净后,用预先过滤好的石花菜汁和淀粉浆糊调和起来的浆糊,这浆糊不能太厚,也不能太稀,用浆扫沾上浆糊后,刷在水油纸上,浆糊一定要刷均匀,紧接着把水油纸一张张的糊在画心正面,然后再把预先托好的三层宣纸托在水油纸上,(水油纸和三层托纸都要大过画心),然后把画拿起来,擦干净台子,再把画翻过来,用棕扫刷平吸在裱画台上,在上面盖上湿毛巾和塑料纸,不让画心干掉,接着就揭复背纸,我和褚昊及学生们一起慢慢地把复背纸一块块揭掉后,就开始揭托绢了。由于此画疲破不堪,画心又酥,我们很小心地托绢一点点地揭起来,从斜方向慢慢移动揭去,做了整正一天才完成,并洗净旧浆,用这样做法对绢本画心很安全,丝绢就不会移动。修复绢本画,我们一直在画背后补洞,采用的刮磨细补法,等画心干后,就可以刮磨洞口,用清洁的厚浆水拿毛笔刷匀在洞口上,然后把补绢经纬丝对正,补在洞上,再刷上一层浆水,等干后,用马蹄刀或钢片刀刮平去掉多余的补绢,补洞完后,再把画心从台子上起下来,裁正四边,把预先染好的颜色纸和日本美浓纸裱在一起后,马上用浆扫在画心背后刷上浆糊,再把颜色纸托裱在画心上,四周托好出助,然后把画翻过来,再把糊在画面上的水油纸和宣纸潮上一点水,慢慢揭掉,等画心干后,第二天用水喷湿,待半干潮时,用手指轻轻擦掉画面上糊水油纸的一点浆糊,如画心有点干了,就潮水均匀画心,在四边出助上拍浆后,就吸在预先托好的二层大于画心的宣纸上,然后反贴在板上,等第二天干后,把画起下来,在画背后的吸纸上用棕扫洒点麻花水,再把画正贴在外面,等干后,就可以全色了。由于此画残缺很多,有的地方画意没有了,我和沈骅先把破洞全好底色,然后根据画意再接笔,经过这样的修复操作过程,可以做到天衣无缝的效果。画心做好以后,按照画心的颜色和尺寸大小,来设计镶料,这幅画是大中堂,画心已很长很宽了,所以做一色裱就可以了。我用的是耿绢做镶料,用宣纸托好耿绢后,配料染颜色,贴平起下再裁镶,我用的颜色很素静,这样就可以把画心衬托出来了。因为画心有许多断裂,所以在背后埑了许许多多的条子,然后托了二层复背纸,复好画后,放在毛毡上等它干,第二天再喷水潮匀后,贴上板,因旧画收缩性很大,所以贴在板上时间长一点比较好,容易平整,等画从板上起下来后,砑画,装上帖和轴头及下轴杆,穿绳子,封头和扎带,经过这样的工序,完成了一幅立轴的修复装裱工作。

在2008年,我重裱了一幅明代画家“仙女凤凰”绢本大中堂立轴,在2012年,我重裱了一幅元代画家盛懋的绢本“雪景图”立轴,在2013年重裱了一幅明代绢本“双马图”立轴和明代画家朱邦的绢本大中堂“紫禁城”立轴,这两幅画,在2014年大英博物馆举办了中国明代“盛世皇朝五十年”大型展览会时作展品,在同年我与日本同事和学生们一起修复了传顾恺之的“女史箴图”。在2015年至2016年我和上海博物馆三位裱画师及学生们一起重裱的明代画家张翀的绢本大中堂“瑶池仙剧”图,现在大英博物馆的何鸿卿爵士中国展厅里展出,在2017年我重裱了绢本手卷“双牧图”,2018年我又重裱了一幅明代绢本大中堂“吴道之画龙”立轴,现贴在板上,等一段时间后,就可以砑装结束了。

装裱修复古书画这项工作,是一种特殊的技艺,书画墨妙必须经过历代装裱,才能便于收藏和欣赏,如已糟朽破碎,一经精心修复装裱,则犹如枯木逢春,一些珍贵书面文物因此才得以保存下来,不致淹没失传,使沉睡在库房几十年的珍贵文物,重见天日,大放异彩,可让世界各国人民参观和欣赏,一饱眼福。装裱艺术在中国文化事业中及在世界上是一个不可忽视与缺少的,而且是十分重要的工作,我们作为文物修复工作者,对待身患各种毛病的宝贵文物,不能不慎重对待,要努力做一个“妙手回春”的“画郎中”,并在世界上要后继有人,代代相传。演讲结束,谢谢大家。

邱锦仙笔于

2018.4.28


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 楼主| 发表于 2018-5-29 12:01:07 | 显示全部楼层
Using Chinese Traditional Techniques to Repair and MountAncientPainting and Calligraphy in British Museum for 30 Years

Hello ladies and gentlemen, I am Qiu Jinxian. From October, 1972 to October, 1987, I have been engaged and involved in repairing and mounting ancient painting and calligraphy in Shanghai Museum. Elaborately instructed and trained by Xu Maokang and Hua Qiming, masters of domestic prestigious restore faction Su and Yang, my colleagues and I studied and explored the craft assiduously. After a few years, we were able to deal with the repairing and mounting tasks of traditional painting and calligraphy, including paper and silk hand scroll, album, vertical and horizontal slope, lenses and other different patterns. My mounting work in Shanghai Museum sustained for fifteen years until October 1987, I had an opportunity to reach London. Recommended by Whitfield, the professor of University of London, the expert of China ancient painting and calligraphy art and Buddhist art field and invited by Mrs. Lawson, the director of British Museum oriental department, I was employed by the department of restoration in British Museum. I got a long-term job in 1992 and I have been working here for twenty-nine years. Throughout the working period, I instructed interns from various countries and four of them hired by British Museum. Now two of them left and work at another museum while Valentina Marabini and Carol Weiss still work with me. For the past thirty years, I dealt with many arduous and laborious ancient painting and the methods I have always been adopting were the Chinese traditional and conventional mounting and repairing approaches. The work I coped with often got praised and appreciated by leaders and colleagues.  

China is an ancient civilization with over five thousand years history. As we all know, the past dynasties handed down quantities of rich cultural heritage and Chinese precious cultural relics are collected around the world, British Museum, for instance, is one place that enshrines assorted Chinese cultural relics, especially the extremely important relic Mogao Grottoes mural, Admonitions Scroll and other renowned painting. These painting not only have great impact on the world but also function as valuable material for scholar to conduct research.

British Museum leaders and colleagues respect and trust me a lot. The artwork I restore, for example, mainly decided by me including operation scheme, mounting styles and the color and size of material. What I have achieved is highly related to the support of leadership from Asia Department and Restore and Mounting Department.
Mounting repair art has a long history and distinctive ethnic characteristics in middle ages and the form of decoration and repair evolve into multiple items. Chinese ancient calligraphy and painting mainly painted on silk and paper, no matter which scroll, the material we use to restore are Geng silk and damask silk. The color of mounting material depends on the background color of core the painting, usually using monochromatic and quiet color to set off the core. As for the support paper, the paper under the painting, we use single rice paper made of cotton and the materials used are relatively thin with watery paste. After this mounting procedure, the painting therefore becoming soft if rolled it up. Chinese framed painting has accumulated abundant experience and continued to improve.
Today, I talk about a few paintings I repaired. In 1984, professor Whitfield worked at British Museum Asia Department, being responsible for the management and researching of China ancient calligraphy and painting. At that time, he took many Dunhuang painting to the oriental painting and calligraphy repair room, all of them were in bad condition and the picture was all a hideous mess. Alf Crowley, a British picture framer cooperate with professor Whitfield at regular basis, rolled out the Dunhuang painting and then put the same piece of silk together and caught in the cardboard. Nearly 400 tablets demand instant repair. In 2002, the United States Mellon Foundation aid financially, hoping that the British Museum collection of Dunhuang painting all get repaired and scan into the computer, people and scholars of all nationalities can therefore appreciate and explore them.
British Museum leaders appointed this task to me. In view of the huge workload, the leaders invited my former colleague Zhu Pinfang to deal with the work with me. In advance I dyed dozens of different Japanese papers in different colors, and later I was asked to paint in different colors. The preparations were all ready. We began to study each piece of debris according to the shape of the painting and the texture of the beryllium. After careful and meticulous research, they were put together into a group, slashed with a matching color paper into two layers of paper, and then brewed. On the back of the painting, the upper plate is affixed so that it becomes a painting. We have mounted 116 pieces. One of the most arduous one to repair is Dunhuang Buddhist Painting assembled by 37 pieces. Each piece was marouflaged and we have to tear every piece of paper off. This picture covered with a layer of dust and what’s worse, its color looks dim due to long time deposit. Accordingly, to begin with, we wash these pieces gently then dry them with a towel and put it on Japanese Rayon paper on the table. Second, brush the painting smoothing and remove the paper, then take a thin sheet of Rayon paper on the back of the painting and put the painting in the middle. Next, put over them together and move the Rayon paper. Matching all pieces accurately together after the painting became dry. Finally, mounting the painting with the pre dyed color paper. This painting was of large area therefore we accomplished by half and assemble and mount together in the end. The final size of this painting is 213 cm long, 200 cm wide.
In 2003, I repaired a large Dunhuang painting. This painting was once set up in the British Museum. It was set up with a dark blue Japanese silk as an ornament. The heart was a script and it was painted on a dyed cloth. Because the texture of the cloth was very hard, after several decades of roll Many places in the paintings and the cloth were left open, and the picture was broken everywhere, and even some large paintings were about to fall. At that time, the head of Chinese painting was managed by the Asian department hoped I can reframe the painting. This painting is a painted bodhisattva image, with ink, cinnabar, white powder, garcinia, vermiculite and other pigments, so I used a cotton ball dipped in a little water, try on a variety of colors, whether it fades. There is no problem with other colors. Only the white powder is faded in some places. So, I use a water-soluble glue, apply it with a brush, and plate it on the discolored color. Then wait for it to dry. Wait two days and fix the color. Next, I look at the background of the painting and draw the paper. The paper on the transcript of the transcript must be close to the color of the painting, because the paper on the chewy paper will show its bottom. The preparation was done, I cut off the old outfit and put it on the painting table. I used a little bit of warm water to pry it on the row of pens and sprinkle it gently on the screen to clean it. Then I used the towel. Place it and gently dry it. This method washes three times, cleans the dirt and pickle inside, and then cuts Rayon paper, which is better than the drawing center, and brushes the water on the painting table, turning the painting heart over and brushing it at Rayon. Above the paper, put a wet towel on the back of the painting, and then cover the towel with a thin piece of plastic paper. Then start picking up the backing paper and the cloth. Together with my colleagues, I carefully picked up the backs of paper and then slowly picked them off. Because the Dunhuang paintings are very incomplete, they do not need to fill holes. So I put the dyed paper into two layers of paper and sizing the back of the painting. Then put the color paper on the top of the brush and brush it flat. After brushing with a brown brush, stick it. The painting was picked up from the table with Rayon paper, rolled over, and then Rayon's paper on the screen was gently removed. The drawing heart came out, placed on the mat, and let it dry slowly. Wait until the next day, then spray the water wet, brush the brush flat on the table, the four sides of the paste, paste the plate and other flat. Because this picture was very incomplete, I decided to no longer set up the axis after consulting with the person in charge of the Asia Department. So I took care of Geng silk, dyed the colors that matched the paintings, and after the paintings began to dry, after the four sides were trimmed, I used the Geng silk to function as inlay material, and then connected, after I measure the size of the smashing, I put a three-story double-backed paper on the back of the painting, then added the pulp on the board, and after the painting was dry, I cut it off and put it flat. On my pre-assembled Western cardboard, this will be easy to show in the future. The size of this piece of Dunhuang painting is: 188cm long and 153cm wide.

After mounting each Dunhuang painting, David Green, proficient in mounting western lens, came to measure the lens size and cut the cardboard, and then mounted into the western type lens, which is convenient for storage and display. When mounted big painting, all colleagues of mounting group will work together. Throughout three and a half months, Zhu and I cooperate with each other and finally completed this important restoration work.

In 2008, I repaired and decorated a Qing Dynasty painter Xu Tingkum (1777-1853), a character landscape paper painting. His name was Spring Festival Customs. This figure is particularly lively, but there are many Many of the incomplete, especially in the part of stone green and azurite, the rice paper has been rotted, and the paintings are broken everywhere, because this painting is cooked paper, often rolled, broken, exhausted, painting heart is not small is a four feet central scroll. Before the repair, according to the law, first check the color of the painting heart, if there is discoloration, so I use a cotton ball to pour a little water, try on a variety of colors, the results of the stone green blue color are a little fade, I use Brush the brush on the easy-to-drop color, wait a few days for the color to dry, and then look at the texture and texture of the painted heart. After finding the same texture, first use the raw soy milk to dye the paper, wait for it to dry, and then dry it. The color is used to hold the paper, but the paper on the paper must be lighter than the background of the painting heart. The preparations have been done well. You can cut off the old clothes and start painting. I first put the painting on the stage, the screen is up, because the color of this painting is a little easy to fall. Although the glue is fixed to it, for the sake of insurance, a little warm water is used. After the water is filled with the row of pens, it is lighter. Sprinkle it lightly on the screen, then gently dry it with a towel, the heart is dirty, we wash it three times, then put it on clean paper, roll it up and put it on the side Then, after cleaning the table, the Japanese Rayon paper, which had been cut in advance, was wetted with water and brushed flat on the table. Rayon paper must be larger than the painting heart, and then the painting was opened, the heart was turned over. Face down, with the back facing upwards, use a brown broom to brush over the Rayon paper, cover the canvas with a wet towel, and then carefully remove the backed paper, then slowly put the paper on it, removed the rest paper piece by piece, because the picture is larger and extremely broken, the paper is difficult to expose, Valentina and I uncovered for more than two days, only to remove the paper. When the paper was uncovered, it was seen that there was a circle of white color around each of the original holes. We did not know what material was used to repair this painting. So I used a brush and dipped it in warm water to clean it in the white color of each hole. But this color has penetrated inside, and it can't be washed. It can only be kept as it is, so I started to draw and use it behind the painting. Slash water on the pen, put the color paper on it, and fill the hole with white rice paper in the hole. After making up, put Rayon paper and the painting heart together and pick it up from the table. Turn it over and draw it to the heart. Rayon paper, gently removed, and then in each hole, with a clean brush dipped in water, wash the paste above, and then brush the heart with a brown brush flat on the table, out of the drawing heart Assist the four sides with a stencil paste on the board, wait until they dry, and cut them all around, then use a knife to scrape the edge of each hole, and put the cut color paper on the four sides, then add one. A thin layer of cotton lint paper was used to reinforce the painting heart. After waiting to dry, I made all my own soya-bean milk water on each hole. If it wasn't enough, it was the second time. After the hole was dry, the water sprayed Draw a heart and paste it on the board. After the painting is dry, it can be full-colored. In the incomplete places, according to colors and paintings, I used various kinds of Chinese mineral pigments to harmonize color. In the incomplete places, according to colors and paintings, I used various kinds of Chinese mineral pigments to harmonize color. Because in the past, the painter used the white color on the back of the hole, so the color around the front hole went deeper than the background of the painting. I carefully stroked it up and made the color and hole color uniform. Sometimes it takes all seven or eight times to get the color exactly the same as the original, and for several days, after the painting is done, it is ready to design the size and the material of the vertical shaft. Because of the British museum display cabinet is not very high, so I hope I don't framed very tall, this painting is not small, so I decided to do color framed, framed into after has 7 feet long, 2 feet, 4 inches wide. I use the dark beige color to make the embroidered material, but the color must be lightened. With such a quiet color, I can paint my heart. Because the painting is full of breaks, there are countless slivers behind it, densely packed and noodles. Then, after supporting the second layer of backed paper, after repainting the painting, it was affixed to the board. The painting was affixed to the board a few months later, and the painting was started. The placard and the lower shaft were attached, and the rope, the head and the tie were put on. Together, it will complete the repair and decoration work. This vertical axis was exhibited at the British Museum Exhibition of Chinese Art in 2010.

From 2014 to 2015, the three mounted painter in Shanghai Museum--- Chu Hao, Huang Ying and Sun Hua, was invited to British Museum and cooperated with me. We repaired two pieces of Ming Dynasty silk painting. Now I'm talking about one of them, the process of repairing the painting Renkeli. The name of the painting is "the west pantheon lion". It is a fifteenth century colorful silk painting. It is painted by a "Persian" man, who led a large lion to pay tribute. Heart is full of fracture and deformity, tapestry is very crisp, exhausted broken, draw the heart is very big, 4.9 feet long, 3.2 feet wide, the original painting is made of silk painting, often put years of volume, dozens of tapestry place out. When they showed it to me to frame, I opened the vertical axis and the painting was covered with a layer of paper. If I didn't cover the paper, the blemishes on my heart had already been dropped. So I tuned the paste and dropped it with a writing brush. Put it on the painting and add it to the pot. Return them to the tray and wait until it is fixed. Before repairing, I found my own old supplement in the collection. There was the old patch of the same latitude and longitude wire in the Ming Dynasty. Next, I check if the colors on the paintings are discolored. After checking, other colors are fine. It is easy to fall out in the white powder place. So I put gelatin in a glass beaker, boiled with water and melted with a brush. The upper and lower plates are plated in a faded color, and the colors are fixed for a few days. Then I prepared to dye the paper and make a copy of it. The color of the paper must be deep. It must be close to the background of the painting. Otherwise, it will reveal the bottom, and the painting heart will become indifferent. The preparations are all well done. After I had cut off the old armored equipment, Chu Hao and I put the painting heart on the painting table. The screen was up. I used a row of pens to dipped in hot water and gently sprinkled on the painting heart. After waiting for water cooling, I gently brushed it with a towel. After sucking dry, wash it like this way four times, wash the painting heart, and use a pre-filtered mixture of agar juice and starch paste. This paste should not be too thick or too thin. After brushing the paste, brush it on water-oil paper and make sure the paste is evenly brushed. And then put the sheets of water the paper paste in painting heart is positive, then remove the advance good three layers onto a paper in water, and three layers (water the paper paper than painting heart), and then pick up the painting, clean table, flipped the picture again, with brown brush brush flat on the mounting absorption, cover them with a wet towel and plastic, don't let heart kill, then removed the backed paper, I slowly with Chu Hao and students removed the backed paper piece by piece, began to remove silk. Because this painting is exhausted, and the paintings are hearty and crisp, we took care of it and lifted it little by little, slowly moved away from the diagonal direction, and made a whole day to complete it, and washed the old pulp. It is safe to copy the painting, and the silkworm will not move. To repair the paintings, we have been painting holes behind the paintings, using fine scraping methods, and after the paintings are done, we can scrape the holes, brush them with a clean, thick slurry of water and brush them over the holes. The warp and weft wire is aligned, fills in the hole, and then brushed with a layer of slurry. After waiting for dryness, use a horseshoe knife or a steel knife to scrape off the excess filling. After filling the hole, draw the painting heart from the platform. Then, after trimming the four sides and merging the pre-dyed color paper and the Japanese Mino paper, immediately apply a slurry to the back of the painting to apply a paste, and then place the color paper on the drawing center. Help, then turn the picture over, and then put a little water on the water-oil paper and rice paper on the screen. Slowly lift it off. Wait until the painting is dry. Then wet it with water the next day, and use lighter fingers. Lightly wipe off the paste on the paste paper. If the picture is a little dry, it will evenly draw the tidal water. After the four sides make up the paste, it will suck on the second layer of rice paper that is larger than the drawing heart. , then paste it back on the board. After the next day's work, draw it up, use a brown brush on the blotting paper behind the painting to sprinkle the twist water, and then put the painting on the outside. After waiting for the dryness, it can be full-colored. Due to the incompleteness of this painting and the lack of painting in some places, Shen and I first put the holes in a good position and then pick up the pens according to the paintings. After such a repair operation, we can achieve a seamless effect. After the painting is done well, we design the lacquer according to the color and size of the painting heart. This painting is a large church, and the painting heart is very long and wide, so you can do it all in one color. I used the Geng silk to function as inlay material, after using rice paper to hold the Geng silk, the ingredients are dyed in color, and the paste is flattened and then trimmed. The color I use is very quiet, so that the painting can be set off. Because there are many breaks in the painting heart, many slivers were picked up at the back of the painting, and then the second layer of back paper was put on. After the good painting was done, it was put on the felt and waited for it to dry. After the next day, the water was sprayed. Affixed to the board, due to the great shrinkage of the old painting, it is better to stick it on the board for a longer time, and it is easy to flatten. After the painting starts from the board, it is painted, loaded with the posts, the shaft head and the lower shaft, and worn. The ropes, heads and straps, after such a process, completed a vertical shaft repair work.

In 2008, I repeated the vertical axis of the Ming Dynasty painter Fairy Phoenix. In 2012, I mounted a silk vertical screen, Snow landscape, painted by Sheng Mao, a Yuan Dynasty painter. In 2013, I had an opportunity to repair two famous paintings, one is Double Horses, a vertical shaft painted by Zhao Mengfu, Yuan Dynasty painter; the other is Forbidden City, a vertical shaft painted by Ming Dynasty painter Zhu Bang. The two pictures are exhibits of a large-scale exhibition Chinese Ming Emperor Yongle "Flourishing Fifty Years" in British Museum in 2014. In same year, Japanese colleagues and students and I worked together to repair the earliest Chinese painting Admonitions Scroll painted by Gu Kaizhi. The Yao Chi Xianju map of the Ming Dynasty painter Zhang Jian of the Ming Dynasty painter Zhang Yi and I painted with three painters and students of the Shanghai Museum from 2015 to 2016. It is now on display at the Chinese Museum of Sir David Ho, British Museum, in 2017. In the year of 2018, I repeated the Shuangpai Diagram handwritten by Sakamoto. In 2018, I re-engraved a vertical axis of Mr. Wu Daozhi Dragon in the middle of the Ming dynasty Sakamoto Seiji Church. It is now attached to the board. After a period of time, it will be possible to finish the installation.

Mounting and restoring ancient calligraphy and painting is kind of a special technique. It is the frame work that provides people with an access to collect and appreciate. A meticulously mounting are able to help precious written cultural relics to survive and thrive, not letting them lost in transmission. Moreover, many precious cultural relics dormant in warehouse can be rediscovered and people all over the world have the opportunity to visit and appreciate them. Mounting art is indispensable and a significant career in Chinese cultural undertakings and even worldwide. As the cultural relics restoration workers, we are supposed to carefully and meticulously treat precious cultural relics, striving to possess the "magic hands" to restore painting and cultivate qualified successors to hand down the skill through successive generations. The end of the lecture, thank you.

Qiu Jingxian
2018.4.28

 楼主| 发表于 2018-5-29 12:51:06 | 显示全部楼层
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